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As defined by the OECD and following the international practice, social spending includes all public costs incurred by paying benefits, providing goods and services, as well as tax deductions and discounts, made for social purposes. Among the beneficiaries of these payments and services may be low-income households or certain social groups, such as the retired, disabled, sick and temporarily disabled people, unemployed, and some others. Social spending is generated by such systems as pension plans, healthcare, education (the OECD statistics covers only early childhood education and care), labor market programs, housing, and family policies. This spending is aimed at redistributing resources across households or targets all the citizens and implies compulsory participation. Apart from the definition above, some Russian authors interpret public social spending broader and include funding of the ...
In the later decade Russia continued progress in terms of economic growth and lowering poverty. Yet Russia was much less successful in reducing inequality which skyrocketed after the market liberalization reforms in the early 1990s. Currently inequality in Russia has stabilized at the level which is significantly above the OECD average: the average Gini coefficient for the OECD countries in 2014 was 0.318, while it was 0.416 in Russia. Current macroeconomic environment with continuous recession, which started in 2014 and massive terms of trade shock due to collapse of oil prices, threatens to reverse Russia’s substantial achievements in terms of raising incomes of the population and reducing poverty. This chapter aims to provide a comprehensive analysis of income and wealth inequality in Russia and the impact of the current crisis. The focus throughout the chapter is on the national distribution of income and wealth. In market economies income and wealth serve as good predictors of well-being in other domains, such as social inclusion, education, health, etc.
The paper examines the capacity of further development of the targeted social support programs in Russia. The analysis shows the position of this income-tested social assistance in the federal and regional social support systems. On the basis of the revealed barriers to the income-tested programs three directions of changes necessary to their further promotion are suggested.
This article is based on a case study conducted within the National Research University Higher School of Economics (NRU HSE) that examined the identity fragmentation of academic professionals in the context of current educational and academic reforms in Russia. Seven hundred and five professors were surveyed for the study, which focused on budgeting work time. The authors single out and describe eight groups of teachers using various structures for budgeting their working time: (1) teachers; (2) teachers engaged in research; (3) teachers engaged in administrative work; (4) researchers; (5) administrators; (6) teachers/researchers/administrators; (7) teachers/researchers; and (8) teachers/administrators. These groups were classified by comparing professional goals, evaluations of working conditions, the university's strategic goals, and attitudes toward publication policy.
Does the business determine economic growth? What factors do provide the stable business development? Recent studies explore business environment as a key factor of prosperous business functioning. The subjective estimates of the business obstacles based on the firm-level World Bank Enterprise Survey (WBES) are aggregated on the country level. Using the country average values of 13 business obstacles 128 countries are classified into six clusters. Cross tables analysis and correlation analysis find that there is a correlation between the prevalence of the business obstacles and national income growth, export growth, high-technology export, expenditure on R&D. Considering regional differences the results show the priority of the business obstacles that could be used in policymaking.
This paper analyses programmes of cash allowances for children and compares their effectiveness in combating child poverty in Russia and four EU countries representing alternative family policy models – Sweden, Germany, Belgium and the United Kingdom. Using microsimulation models, this paper estimates the potential gains if the Russian system were re-designed along the policy parameters of these countries and vice versa. The results confirm that the poverty impact of the program design is smaller than that of the level of spending. Other conditions being equal, the best outcomes for children are achieved by applying the mix of universal and means-tested child benefits, such as those employed by the UK and Belgium. At the same time, the Russian design of child allowances does not appear to be less effective in terms of its impact on child poverty when transferred to European countries in place of their current arrangements.
This paper suggests a new and comprehensive approach to the assessment of the material well-being at the individual level by constructing a multidimensional index. Using this approach, material well-being is understood as a generic notion that covers a number of different domains, whereas the concept of domain is used to distinguish between different aspects of people’s resources, including income security, basic needs, durables, housing and subjective material well-being. Each dimension is measured independently, using the best indicators available, to generate a score or domain index for each aspect of material well-being. The procedure of re-weighting the indicators within the separate domains enables us to account for the disparity in resources and consumer preferences across different population subgroups. The final domain scores, combined with explicit weighting, are then used to generate a summary material well-being index. The domain indices and the summary material well-being index are validated by exploring their relationships to key socio-economic attributes, which were previously shown to be strongly associated with individual material well-being. The results showed that the summary indices of material well-being are characterized by greater differentiation in relation to such measures, as occupational class and judgments of satisfaction with one's life. This allows us to conclude that our summary indices capture the latent concept of material well-being better than any of our domain indices used separately. Although the index is constructed using the Russian Gender and Generation Survey data for 2007, the methodological approach that we applied can be easily replicated in other surveys which contain information on several aspects of material well-being.
From 2007 to 2014 total fertility rate in Russia increased from 1.42 to 1.75. To what extent this growth is related to a package of family policy measures introduced in 2007? Although the maternity (family) capital program is the most well-known innovation of the 2007 reform, we argue that the new rules of monthly childcare allowance assignment is its another major component. Since all measures were introduced simultaneously, it is only possible to estimate their cumulative effect on subsequent fertility behavior. Using panel Russian Generations and Gender Survey data collected in 2004, 2007 and 2011, this study assesses how family policy changes introduced in 2007 were related to the fertility behavior in Russia in recent years. Eventually we do not find any statistically significant increase in the chances of having second and subsequent births in 2007-2011 in comparison with the period of 2004-2007. We also find that the policy changes might have influenced women differentially, and might have had significant influence on less educated women and women from low income households. Unfortunately, the size of the GGS sample does not allow to capture it within this study. We acknowledge that the observed effects might be related only to the calendar shifts in fertility behavior and recuperation of fertility decline observed in 1990-s.
The article uses statistical data and all-Russian sociological surveys conducted in 2003–2013 to analyze changes in poverty in Russian society.1 It is shown that, on the one hand, the scope of poverty in Russia decreased before the ongoing economic crisis started in 2014; on the other hand, those who remained poor have become the base for the formation of a “new periphery” which is significantly different from the rest of the population. The “new periphery” formation zone in 2013 covered about 30% of the population, and this group consisted of the poor identified using both absolute and relative approaches to poverty that complement rather than duplicate each other in conditions of Russian social reality. Factors that account for becoming part of the “new periphery” are analyzed, the key one being the position on the labor market; its qualitative features are demonstrated, including living standards of its representatives, and the population’s perceptions of the causes of poverty are described.
Classic sociological approaches to the study of professions were conducted from a perspective typical for Anglo-American context while in Continental Europe and other contexts, occupational groups may not be the main actors in these processes. Professionalization here thus may be promoted ‘from above’ by the state, which plays the main role in the development of the professions (Siegrist 1990). But states also differ. As for socialist Russia, one must take into account the role of the ruling Communist Party. In fact, it was the single-party bureaucratic and at times autocratic state which provided the professions with additional ideological frames and functions. In order to study the professions in Russia, where the party-state had a much more central role in organization of social life than that of the government in capitalist or mixed economies (Jones 1991), one needs to consider the historical changes that occurred before, during and after the period of state socialism (Krause 1991: 5). This chapter will focus on the pre-socialist and state-socialist periods of the history of professions and professionalization in Russia. We begin with a short glance into the history of modernization reforms of 18th century to see the origins of the strong role of the state in the institutionalization of the professions. Then we consider the important changes occurred in the late nineteenth century, in the course of liberal reforms, which affected the transformation of social structure, opened the way for new occupations and expanded opportunities for professionalization. Then we describe the dynamic and complex re-mapping of professional structure within the society after the socialist revolution. We turn to a discussion on how the new understanding of profession was formed and revised throughout recent Soviet history. We conclude by outlining the main trends of professionalization processes in pre-socialist and socialist Russia as well as short brief of what changes has occurred in the post-Soviet state.
The country note follows a standard format of the Review: details of different types of leave; the relationship between leave policy and early childhood education and care policy; recent policy developments; information on take-up of leave; recent publications and current research projects. Russia's note covers Maternity and Parental leaves; leave to care for sick children and other employment-related measures to support working parents; and early childhood education and care policy.
The study considers the relationship between internal migration and fertility in Russia. Authors use a sample of 28.2 million women born in 1950-1979 withdrawn from the Russian population Census-2010 database. The data shows that women who have continuously lived in their birthplace since birth have on average lower fertility compared to those who have a migration experience. The authors attribute this to the fact that in Russia internal migrants usually aim to escape from economically depressed areas, and positive effects of these changes overcome negative effects coming from the disruption of their childbearing careers. At that moves within the region have stronger positive impact on fertility than interregional ones, which confirms that migration and fertility are still competing life events. One major exception are migrants heading to the capital cities. Due to the need to adapt to the high competition in every sphere of economic life on the one hand and to the very low fertility norms in the destination region on the other hand they demonstrate lower eventual fertility than their non-migrant compatriots. Spatial analysis of fertility differences between migrant and non-migrant women revealed that regions that loose in fertility due to internal migration are few and they are clustered around the Caucasus Mountains and near the Altai. These are regions just entering the second demographic transition characterized by high fertility together with relatively low average age for motherhood. Overall, authors conclude that Russia benefits from internal migration in terms of eventual fertility.
The aim of this article is to analyze the relationship of innovation potential and its main components with the level of small and medium-sized enterprises development in Russian regions. Based on international and Russian experience the regional innovation potential was evaluated using the multilevel approach. It includes the calculation of the partial sub-indices reflecting the innovation potential components in the regions (resources, infrastructure and effectiveness of innovation) as well as the composite index evaluation based on them. Principal components analysis of the variables characterizing small and medium-sized enterprises density in a region and these enterprises contribution to regional employment allows obtaining generalized characteristic of the level of small and medium-sized enterprises development. By the values of resource and effectiveness components of the innovation potential the typological groups of Russian regions were highlighted. The analysis reveals a significant moderate positive relationship between the level of small and medium-sized enterprises development (in particular, the groups of micro and small enterprises, medium-sized enterprises) and the composite index of innovative potential as well as sub-indices characterizing its components. For medium-sized enterprises this relationship with the resource and effectiveness components is higher because medium-sized enterprises are more involved in innovation activities. Currently, the contribution of small enterprises to innovative development of Russian regions is negligible, so the level of small entrepreneurship development depends mostly on regional infrastructure than on other aspects of innovation. Finally, practical recommendations were developed to stimulate entrepreneurial activity taking into account regional specificities.
The Routledge Companion to the Professions and Professionalism is a state-of-the-art reference work which maps out the current developments and debates around the sociology of the professions, and how they relate to management and organizations. Supported by an international contributor team specializing in the disciplines of organizational studies and sociology, the collection provides extensive coverage of this field of research. It brings together the core concepts and issues, and has chapters on all the key aspects of professions in both the public and private sectors, including issues of governance and regulation. The volume closes with a set of international case studies which provide valuable practical insights into the subject.